Mac Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard Shortcuts

1. Command + Option + Control + Eject

Use the keyboard combination of Command + Option + Control + Eject to instantly shut down your Mac. (And we mean instantly — make sure you've saved any open files!) This is a great time saver because it bypasses the shut-down counter that you get when using Apple menu > Shut Down (shown above). You can also put your Mac to sleep by pressing Command + Option + Eject.

2. Command + Shift + A/U/D

These keyboard shortcuts are used to navigate around the Finder. To open the Applications folder on your Mac, press Command + Shift + A in an opened Finder window; press Command + Shift + U to open the Utilities folder; and, press Command + Shift + D to open your Desktop folder in the Finder. These keyboard shortcuts can also be used when in an opened save dialog to navigate to these folders.

3. Command + Shift + I

When used inside of Safari, this keyboard shortcut (Command + Shift + I) will automatically generate a new email message inside of Mail.app and paste the link of the web page you were browsing in the body text. This shortcut is great for quickly sharing a website address with a friend via email.

4. Control + D

To the bane of many Windows to Mac switchers, the Mac's "Delete" key doesn't actually function as the delete key does in Windows. The "Delete" key on the Mac instead functions as a backspace. To remedy this, you can instead use Control + D in any text area on your Mac to delete from the front of the cursor.

5. Command + Control + Option + 8

Use this keyboard shortcut to invert the colors on your Mac's screen. (Note: This won't work until you go to System Preferences > Keyboard > Shortcuts > Accessibility and tick the "Invert Colors" box.) This high contrast display is used by individuals with visual impairments needing high-contrast screens, but can also provide a cool effect. Warning: This keyboard shortcut may be useful when doing April fool's pranks, butMac|Life will not be responsible for any damages resulting from the prank recipient trying to beat their Mac back into shape.

6. Command + Control + D

When writing, we often need to quickly look up the meaning of a word; however, it can be a pain to open a dictionary and type in the word we want to look up. Instead, we prefer this nice way to quickly look up a word. With your mouse cursor over top of the word you'd like to look up, press Command + Control + D. A dialog will then pop up with the word defined by the built-in Mac OS X dictionary.

7. Command + Shift + 4 + Space Bar

At Mac|Life, we deal with a lot of screenshots on a daily basis, and this little-known keyboard combination allows us to capture a screenshot of only the window we need. To grab just a one-window screenshot, press Command + Shift + 4, then when the crosshairs appear, press the space bar. The cross hairs will change to a picture of a camera that can be placed over top of the window to be captured and clicked. The resulting window-only screenshot will appear on your Desktop.

8. Command + Option + M

Sometimes when you're working on a large task, you lose track of just how many windows you've opened on your Mac. To minimize all of your opened windows and de-clutter your screen, just press Command + Option + M to have all of the windows minimized to the Dock.

9. Command + Shift + Option + Esc

Mac applications can sometimes get unruly and crash. When this happens, you can press and holdCommand + Shift + Option + Esc for three seconds to instantly Force Quit the application, and bypassing the Force Quit app.

10. Command + `

Command + Shift + Tab is a great way to cycle through all of the different applications and windows opened on your Mac, but what if you only want to cycle through the current application's opened windows? In that case, use Command + ` (the ` is located on the key above Tab, next to the number 1). This keyboard combination will cycle through all of the opened windows in the currently active application.

Do you know of another time-saving keyboard shortcut that you use? Let us know about it in the comments section below.

More?


OS X keyboard shortcuts


A keyboard shortcut is a way to invoke a function in OS X by pressing a combination of keys on your


keyboard. Learn about common OS X keyboard shortcuts.


To use a keyboard shortcut you press a modifier key with a character key. For example, pressing the Command


key (it has a symbol) and then the "c" key copies whatever is currently selected (text, graphics, and so forth) into


the Clipboard. This is also known as the Command-C keyboard shortcut.


A modifier key is a part of many keyboard shortcuts. A modifier key alters the way other keystrokes or


mouse/trackpad clicks are interpreted by OS X. Modifier keys include: Command, Shift, Option, Control, Caps


Lock, and the Fn key. You may need to use the Fn key in some of the key combinations listed below. For example,


if the keyboard shortcut is Control-F2, press Fn-Control-F2.


Here are the modifier key symbols you may see in OS X menus:


⌘ Command key


⌃ Control key


⌥ Option key


⇧ Shift Key


⇪ Caps Lock


Fn Function Key


Startup shortcuts


Press the key or key combination until the expected function occurs/appears (for example, hold Option during


startup until Startup Manager appears). Note: If a startup function doesn't work and you use a third-party


keyboard, try again with an Apple keyboard.


Key or key combination What it does


Option Display all bootable volumes (Startup Manager)


Shift Start up in Safe Mode


Left Shift Prevent automatic login


C Start from bootable media (DVD, CD, USB thumb


T Start up in Target disk mode


N Start from a NetBoot server


X Force Mac OS X startup (if non-Mac OS X startup


drive, and so forth)


volumes are present)


D Use Apple Hardware Test


Command-R Use OS X Recovery (OS X Lion or later)


Command-V Start up in Verbose Mode


Command-S Start up in Single User Mode


Command-Option-P-R Reset NVRAM / parameter RAM


Hold down the Media Eject (⏏) key or F12 key, or mouse


or trackpad button Eject removable discs


Sleep and shut down shortcuts


Key or key combination What it does


Power button – OS X Mavericks Tap to power on. Once powered on, tap to wake or sleep.


Hold down the power button for 1.5


Hold down the power button for 1.5


seconds – OS X Mavericks Show restart / sleep / shutdown dialog


Hold down the power button for 5


seconds Force the Mac to power of


Command-Control-power button Force the Mac to restart


Control-Media Eject (⏏) Show restart / sleep / shutdown dialog


Command-Option-Media Eject (⏏) Put the computer to sleep


Command-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open


Command-Option-Control-Media


Eject (⏏)


Shift-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Put all displays to sleep


documents), then restart the computer


Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open


documents), then shut down the computer


Finder keyboard shortcuts


Key combination What it does


Command-A Select all items in the front Finder window (or desktop if no


Command-Option-A Deselect all items


Command-Shift-A Open the Applications folder


Command-C Copy selected item/text to the Clipboard


Command-Shift-C Open the Computer window


Command-D Duplicate selected item


Command-Shift-D Open desktop folder


Command-E Eject


Command-F Find any matching Spotlight attribute


Command-Shift-F Find Spotlight file name matches


Command-Option-F Navigate to the search field in an already-open Spotlight


Command-Shift-G Go to Folder


Command-Shift-H Open the Home folder of the currently logged-in user


Command-Shift-Control-T Add to Dock


Command-I Get Info


Command-Option-I Show Inspector


Command-Control-I Get Summary Info


Command-Shift-I Open iDisk


Command-J Show View Options


Command-K Connect to Server


Command-Shift-K Open Network window


Command-L Make alias of the selected item


Command-M Minimize window


Command-Option-M Minimize all windows


Command-N New Finder window


Command-Shift-N New folder


Command-Option-N New Smart Folder


Command-O Open selected item


Command-Shift-Q Log Out


window is open)


window


account


Command-Shift-Option-Q Log Out immediately


Command-R Show original (of alias)


Command-T Add to Sidebar


Command-Shift-T Add to Favorites


Command-Option-T Hide Toolbar / Show Toolbar in Finder windows


Command-Shift-U Open Utilities folder


Command-V Paste


Command-W Close window


Command-Option-W Close all windows


Command-X Cut


Command-Option-Y Slideshow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)


Command-Z Undo / Redo


Command-1 View as Icon


Command-2 View as List


Command-3 View as Columns


Command-4 View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)


Command-Comma (,) Open Finder preferences


Command-Accent (`) (the Accent key above Tab


key on a US English keyboard layout) Cycle through open Finder windows


Command-Shift-Question Mark (?) Open Mac Help


Command-Left Bracket ([) Go to the previous folder


Command-Right Bracket (]) Go to the next folder


Command-Up Arrow Open the folder that contains the current folder


Command-Control-Up Arrow Open the folder that contains the current folder in a new


Command-Down Arrow Open highlighted item


Command-Shift-Up Arrow Make the desktop active


Right Arrow (in List view) Open the selected folder


window


Left Arrow (in List view) Close the selected folder


Option-click the disclosure triangle (in List view) Open all folders within the selected folder


Option–double-click Open a folder in a separate window, closing the current


Command–double-click Open a folder in a separate window


Command-click the window title See the folders that contain the current window


Command-Tab Switch application–cycle forward


Command-Shift-Tab Switch application–cycle backward


Command-Delete Move to Trash


Command-Shift-Delete Empty Trash


Command-Shift-Option-Delete Empty Trash without confirmation dialog


Space bar (or Command-Y) Quick Look (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)


Command key while dragging Move dragged item to other volume/location (pointer icon


Option key while dragging Copy dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held-


Command-Option key combination while dragging Make alias of dragged item (pointer icon changes while key


window


changes while key is held--see this article)


-see this article)


is held--see this article)


Application and other OS X shortcuts


Note: Some applications may not support all of the following application key combinations.


Key combination What it does


Command-Space bar Show or hide the Spotlight search field (if multiple languages are installed, may


Control-A Move to beginning of line/paragraph


Control-B Move one character backward


Control-D Delete the character in front of the cursor


Control-E Move to end of line/paragraph


Control-F Move one character forward


rotate through enabled script systems)


Control-H Delete the character behind the cursor


Control-K Delete from the character in front of the cursor to the end of the line/paragraph


Control-L Center the cursor/selection in the visible area


Control-N Move down one line


Control-O Insert a new line after the cursor


Control-P Move up one line


Control-T Transpose the character behind the cursor and the character in front of the cursor


Control-V Move down one page


Option-Delete Delete the word that is left of the cursor, as well as any spaces or punctuation


Command-Option-Space


bar


Command-Tab Move forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open


Command-Shift-Tab Move backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use)


Shift-Tab Navigate through controls in a reverse direction


Control-Tab Move focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when


Shift-Control-Tab Move focus to the previous grouping of controls


Command-esc Open Front Row (if installed)


Option-Media Eject (⏏) Eject from secondary optical media drive (if one is installed)


Fn-Delete Forward Delete (on a portable Mac's built-in keyboard)


Command-F1 Toggles "Mirror Displays" for multi-monitor configurations


Command-F2 Toggle Target Display Mode


Command-F3 Show Desktop


Command-F5 Toggle VoiceOver On / Of


Option-F1 or F2 Opens "Displays" System Preference


Option-F3 or F4 Opens "Mission Control" System Preference


Option-F10 or F11 or F12 Opens "Sound" System Preference


Control-F3 App Exposé


Shift-Control-F6 Move focus to the previous panel


Control-F7 Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs


Control-F8 Move to the status menus in the menu bar


F9 Tile or untile all open windows


F10 Tile or untile all open windows in the currently active application


after the word


Show the Spotlight search results window (if multiple languages are installed, may


rotate through keyboard layouts and input methods within a script)


applications


Tab moves to the next cell)


F11 Hide or show all open windows


F12 Hide or display Dashboard


Command-Accent (`) Activate the next open window in the frontmost application


Command-Shift-Accent (`) Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application


Command-Option-Accent


(`) Move focus to the window drawer


Command-Minus (–) Decrease the size of the selected item


Command-{ Left-align a selection


Command-} Right-align a selection


Command-| Center-align a selection


Command-Colon (:) Display the Spelling window


Command-Semicolon (;) Find misspelled words in the document


Command-Comma (,) Open the front application's preferences window (if it supports this keyboard


shortcut)


Decrease screen contrast


Command-Option-Control-

Comma (,)


Command-Option-Control-

Period (.)


Command-Question Mark


(?) Open the application's help in Help Viewer


Command-Option-/ Turn font smoothing on or of


Command-Shift-= Increase the size of the selected item


Command-Shift-3 Capture the screen to a file


Command-Shift-Control-3 Capture the screen to the Clipboard


Command-Shift-4 Capture a selection to a file


Command-Shift-Control-4 Capture a selection to the Clipboard


Increase screen contrast


Command-A Highlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field


Command-B Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and of


Command-C Copy the selected data to the Clipboard


Command-Shift-C Display the Colors window


Command-Option-C Copy the style of the selected text


Command-Control-C Copy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard


Command-Option-D Show or hide the Dock


Command-Control-D Display the definition of the selected word in the Dictionary application


Command-D


Selects the Desktop folder in Open and Save dialogs


or


Selects "Don't Save" in dialogs that contain a Don't Save button, in Mac OS X


v10.6.8 and earlier


Command-Delete Selects "Don't Save" in dialogs that contain a Don't Save button, in OS X Lion and


Command-E Use the selection for a find


Command-F Open a Find window


Command-Option-F Move to the search field control


Command-G Find the next occurrence of the selection


Command-Shift-G Find the previous occurrence of the selection


Command-H Hide the windows of the currently running application


Command-Option-H Hide the windows of all other running applications


Command-I Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or of


Mountain Lion


Command-Option-I Display an inspector window


Command-J Scroll to a selection


Command-M Minimize the active window to the Dock


Command-Option-M Minimize all windows of the active application to the Dock


Command-N Create a new document in the frontmost application


Command-O Display a dialog for choosing a document to open in the frontmost application


Command-P Display the Print dialog


Command-Shift-P Display a dialog for specifying printing parameters (Page Setup)


Command-Q Quit the frontmost application


Command-S Save the active document


Command-Shift-S Display the Save As dialog


Command-T Display the Fonts window


Command-Option-T Show or hide a toolbar


Command-U Underline the selected text or turn underlining on or of


Command-V Paste the Clipboard contents at the insertion point


Command-Option-V Apply the style of one object to the selected object (Paste Style)


Command-Shift-Option-V Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match


Command-Control-V Apply formatting settings to the selected object (Paste Ruler Command)


Command-W Close the frontmost window


Command-Shift-W Close a file and its associated windows


Command-Option-W Close all windows in the application without quitting it


Command-X Remove the selection and store in the Clipboard


Command-Z Undo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Undos)


Command-Shift-Z Redo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Redos)


Control-Right Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table


Control-Left Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table


Control-Down Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table


Control-Up Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table


Command-Right Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the current line


Command-Left Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the current line


Command-Down Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the document


Command-Up Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the document


Option-Right Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the next word


Option-Left Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the previous word


Command-Shift-Right


Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the end of the current line (*)


Style)


Command-Shift-Left Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the current line (*)


Shift-Right Arrow Extend text selection one character to the right (*)


Shift-Left Arrow Extend text selection one character to the left (*)


Command-Shift-Up Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the document (*)


Command-Shift-Down


Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the end of the document (*)


Shift-Up Arrow Extend text selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the


same horizontal location (*)


Shift-Down Arrow Extend text selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the


same horizontal location (*)


Shift-Option-Right Arrow Extend text selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the


Shift-Option-Left Arrow Extend text selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning


Shift-Option-Down Arrow Extend text selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the


Shift-Option-Up Arrow Extend text selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the


Control-Space bar Toggle between the current and previous input sources


Option-Control-Space bar Toggle through all enabled input sources


Command-Option-esc Force Quit


Command-Shift-Option-Esc


(hold for three seconds) Force Quit the front-most application (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)


Command-Left Bracket ([) Previous browser webpage


Command-Right Bracket (]) Next browser webpage


following word if pressed again (*)


of the following word if pressed again (*)


following paragraph if pressed again (*)


beginning of the following paragraph if pressed again (*)


*Note: If no text is selected, the extension begins at the insertion point. If text is selected by dragging, then the


extension begins at the selection boundary. Reversing the direction of the selection deselects the appropriate


unit.


Universal Access - VoiceOver keyboard commands


For information about VoiceOver key combination diferences in Mac OS X v10.6, see this article.


Key combination What it does


Command-F5 or Fn-Command-F5 Turn VoiceOver on or of


Option-Control-F8 or Fn-Option-Control-F8 Open VoiceOver Utility (if VoiceOver is on)


Option-Control-F7 or Fn-Option-Control-F7 Display VoiceOver menu (if VoiceOver is on)


Option-Control-Semicolon (;) Enable/disable VoiceOver Control Option-lock


Command-Option-8 Turn Zoom on or of


Command-Option-Plus (+) Zoom In


Command-Option-Minus (–) Zoom Out


Command-Option-Control-8 Invert/revert the screen colors (OS X Lion or earlier)


Command-Option-Control-Comma (,) Reduce contrast (OS X Lion or earlier)


Command-Option-Control-Period (.) Increase contrast (OS X Lion or earlier)


Note: You may need to enable "Use all F1, F2, etc. keys as standard keys" in Keyboard preferences for the


VoiceOver menu and utility to work.


Full keyboard access


Full keyboard access lets you use your keyboard to navigate and interact with items on the screen. Use these


shortcuts to select and adjust controls such as text fields and sliders.


Key combination What it does


Tab Move to the next control


Shift-Tab Move to the previous control


Control-Tab Move to the next control when a text field is selected


Move to the adjacent item in a list, tab group, or menu


or


Arrow keys Move sliders and adjusters (vertical up and down arrows used to increase and decrease


values)


Control-Arrow


keys Move to a control adjacent to the text field


Space bar Select the highlighted menu item


Return or Enter Click the default button or perform the default action


Esc


Click the Cancel button


or


Close a menu without choosing an item


You can navigate the menus in the menu bar without using a mouse or trackpad. To put the focus in the menu


bar, press Control-F2 (Fn-Control-F2 on portable keyboards). Then use the key combinations listed below.


Key combination What it does


Left Arrow and Right Arrow Move from menu to menu


Return Open a selected menu


Up Arrow and Down Arrow Move to menu items in the selected menu


Type the menu item’s name Jump to a menu item in the selected menu


Return Select a menu item


Universal Access - Mouse Keys


When Mouse Keys is turned on in Universal Access preferences, you can use the keyboard or numeric keypad keysto move the mouse pointer. If your computer doesn't have a numeric keypad, use the Fn (function) key.


Key combination What it does


Fn 8 Move Up


Fn 2 Move Down


4 Move Left


6 Move Right


1 Move Diagonally Bottom Left


3 Move Diagonally Bottom Right


7 Move Diagonally Top Left


9 Move Diagonally Top Right


5 Press Mouse Button


0 Hold Mouse Button


. (Period on number pad) Release Hold Mouse Button


See also: Shortcuts for Mouse Keys.


Additional Information


Advanced: This article refers to the default modifier key assignments. Modifier key assignments can be changed


in the Keyboard preferences pane of System Preferences. For example, you can change the Command key to act


as an Option key, and vice-versa. You can also restore default modifier key settings.



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